What are the different frequency bands globally used in telecom?

Category: WIreless Technologies

The frequency bands used in global telecommunications are varied and designated for specific purposes, including mobile communication, broadcasting, satellite communication, and more. Here’s an overview of some key frequency bands used in telecom:

  1. Low Frequency (LF) Bands (30 kHz to 300 kHz):
  • Primarily used for AM radio broadcasting, maritime communication, and navigation.
  1. Medium Frequency (MF) Bands (300 kHz to 3 MHz):
  • Used for AM radio broadcasting and aviation communication.
  1. High Frequency (HF) Bands (3 MHz to 30 MHz):
  • Utilized for shortwave radio broadcasting, amateur radio, and maritime communication.
  1. Very High Frequency (VHF) Bands (30 MHz to 300 MHz):
  • Include FM radio broadcasting (88 MHz to 108 MHz) and VHF TV broadcasting.
  • Used in aviation and maritime communication, and two-way radios.
  1. Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Bands (300 MHz to 3 GHz):
  • Cover TV broadcasting and mobile communication (LTE, GSM).
  • Include the 2.4 GHz band used for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.
  1. Super High Frequency (SHF) Bands (3 GHz to 30 GHz):
  • Encompass parts of the spectrum used for newer 4G and 5G cellular networks.
  • Include bands used for satellite communication and radar systems.
  1. Extremely High Frequency (EHF) Bands (30 GHz to 300 GHz):
  • Used in high-capacity wireless communication, millimeter-wave radar, and scientific research.
  • 5G networks utilize some of these higher frequencies (e.g., around 28 GHz and 39 GHz) for mmWave communication.
  1. Cellular Frequency Bands:
  • GSM Bands: 900 MHz and 1800 MHz in most parts of the world, 850 MHz and 1900 MHz in the Americas.
  • 3G/UMTS Bands: 2100 MHz (Band 1) is the most widely used globally.
  • 4G/LTE Bands: Numerous bands including 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2600 MHz, and others.
  • 5G Bands: Ranging from sub-1 GHz low bands to mid-band (3.5 GHz) and high-band mmWave frequencies.

The allocation of these bands can vary by region, and they are regulated by international organizations like the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and national regulatory bodies such as the FCC in the United States or Ofcom in the United Kingdom.

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